Wayne R. Dynes (ed.)
Originally published in 2 vols. (1484 p.) by Garland, New York, 1990.
Reproduced here by special permission of the editor and copyright owner Wayne R. Dynes.
The love that dared not speak its name is now, in spite of or because of AIDS, shouting it from the rooftops, and in many voices. Almost as much scholarship on homosexuality has appeared since 1969 as in the previous hundred years, even in the wake of Freud and Hirschfeld, and with each passing year the volume increases. This encyclopedia is the first attempt to bring together, interrelate, summarize, and synthesize this outpouring of controversial and often contradictory writings and to supplant the pseudoscholarship, negative or positive propaganda, and apologetics that are still appearing.
As recently as the 1960s, dearth of research and the widespread Western taboo on public discussion of homosexuality even in the world of academia would have prevented publication of such a work as this. A society that sought for many centuries to suppress the very existence of homosexuality, and to exclude all mention of it from literary and historical documents and from public discourse, could not have welcomed the issuance of this encyclopedia. Indeed, even now some may seek to entomb it in silence because remnants of that taboo still persist.
As anyone who has sought information from them knows, general encyclopedias and histories offer only meager information on homosexuality, usually couched in outdated clinical or judgmental terms. Biographies of gay men and lesbian women discuss their orientation only when unavoidable, as with Oscar Wilde. There have been several encyclopedias and dictionaries of sexuality (beginning with a German one of 1922, the Handbuch der Sexualwissenschaft), but this work is the first to treat homosexuality in all its complexity and variety.
In presenting the encyclopedia to the world, the editors urge the educated public to reflect upon the hidden threads that this work has followed through many areas of human endeavor, a pattern that traces the covert sexuality of figures in public life and in the arts and sciences as the clue to otherwise incomprehensible acts and events. So much effort has gone into censoring and suppressing this subject that extensive investigation has been required to bring it back to the light of day. Even so, vast areas of inquiry - historical eras, whole countries, entire disciplines of scholarly thought - remain to this day blank pages awaiting the patient detective work of future generations of scholars. That so much has already been uncovered, as this work demonstrates, is a monumental tribute to the courage, fortitude, research skills, and the sheer dedication to the difficult search for truth shown by the scholars whose findings form the heart of the encyclopedia.
HOW AND FOR WHOM THE WORK CAN BE USEFUL
This encyclopedia is not just for academic readers. While a variety of styles and vocabulary levels coexist in the work, the editors have generally sought to make the articles accessible to all likely users, while germane to highly educated scholars. Thus a high-school student should be able to gain valuable information from the article COMING OUT even as the social psychologist finds a rigorous critique of various theoretical concepts of the "coming out" process. No advanced degree is needed to interpret BEACHES, SLANG WORDS FOR HOMOSEXUALS, PIRATES, and CATHER, WILL A; on the other hand, SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION and CANON LAW may prove a challenge for those with no previous acquaintance with related materials.
The encyclopedia should be of great practical use to a wide variety of professionals, from social workers to clergymen, from lawyers to wardens, from pediatricians to drug counselors, and from travel agents to novelists.
In addition, these volumes will aid heterosexual readers in understanding friends, co-workers, and family members who are involved in or afraid of homosexual experiences or relationships or who are simply trying to clarify and communicate their own outlook to others whom the subject baffles.
The editors hope that the encyclopedia will furnish enlightenment for the debates now unfolding in books, articles, the audio-visual media, religious bodies, courts, and legislatures about gay and lesbian rights. We trust that the data assembled will refute misconceptions and falsehoods and contribute to more accurate polemics and to a just resolution of these complex issues.
To the individual struggling to come to terms with his or her own homosexuality, the encyclopedia furnishes a wealth of points of comparison, of historical figures with whom to feel kinship, and the knowledge that all the efforts of church and state over the centuries to obliterate homosexual behavior and its expression in literature, tradition, and subculture have come to naught, if only because the capacity for homoerotic response and homosexual activity is embedded in human nature, and cannot be eradicated by any amount of suffering inflicted upon hapless individuals.
WHAT THE WORK IS ABOUT
The unifying subject of this encyclopedia is ostensibly "homosexuality." But this matter is not so simple as it appears. First of all, it includes both male and female homosexuality (lesbianism), though there is a good deal more information about the former because the latter has been even more thoroughly censored from the historical record along with other aspects of the history of women. Indeed, some have suggested that the two gender aspects of same-sex behavior should be completely segregated and that the present work should restrict itself to males. The editors, however, are persuaded that the phenomenology of lesbianism and that of male homosexuality have much in common, especially when viewed in the cultural and social context, where massive homophobia has provided a shared setting, if not necessarily an equal duress.
Second, a discussion of homosexuality is incomplete without taking into account those who, for whatever reasons, have combined erotic behavior with their own sex and with the other, to whatever degree. Hence, though the term "homosexual" is often perceived as a dualistic one, standing in stark contrast to its opposite term, "heterosexual," this encyclopedia encompasses bisexuality as well. Moreover, not every person who has received a biography is gay, lesbian, or bisexual; heterosexuals have made important contributions to the subject and to this work.
Third, homosexuality cannot properly be understood if it is restricted to genital sexuality. The terminology here is difficult, but the passionate love of one male for another or of one female for another has not always found physical expression, or the evidence of genital expression has not been preserved, while the passionate feelings are perpetuated in literature and history.
Fourth, homosexuality has had great significance for all of humanity through the role that both it - and opposition to it - have played in the evolution of world culture. In this aspect, the encyclopedia must reach far beyond questions of physical sexuality to examine the effects of homophilia and of homophobia on literature, the arts, religion, science, law, philosophy, society, history, and psychology - indeed, on virtually every field of human endeavor. It is perhaps here that the reader new to this field will discover the greatest surprises, for general literature has obscured most of these effects.
The encyclopedia is concerned not simply with homosexual behavior as such, but with the hopes and aspirations, the longing and dread, with which the subject has been invested. Homophobia itself cannot be omitted, because it has played - at least in Western society - and still does play a large role in shaping popular attitudes. By way of compensation, the Encyclopedia of Homosexuality presents a rich banquet of novels and poems, paintings and sculptures, plays and films which have permanently recorded homosexual feelings and aspirations.
Perhaps the most difficult obstacle to a simple focus on "homosexuality" is the growing realization that what has been lumped together under that term since its coinage in 1869 is not a simple, unitary phenomenon. The more one works with data from times and cultures other than contemporary middle-class American and northern European ones, the more one tends to see a multiplicity of homosexualities. A current conception, which focuses on a sense of homosexual identity or personality, interacting with a "gay" subculture set apart from the general society, is only one of a number of paradigms or models of homosexuality, and there is far from a consensus that it is necessarily "better" or more accurate or more universal than others. A male who has sex with another male can be seen by one society as feminine, by another as all the more masculine; his act can be accounted customary for all males or a rare monstrosity; his behavior, if limited to the insertor role, is not even considered homosexual by many cultures. He may be considered especially evil or especially sacred for his conduct, or it may not even be thought worth mentioning. In some cultures his act will be approved only if he does it with a boy, in others boy love will draw the fiercest wrath upon him. It is this variety of patterns and conceptions, on all of which the tag "homosexuality" is applied by one writer or another, that makes the study of same-sex eroticism both so difficult and so fascinating. Most of all, it adds to the great diversity the reader will find in this work.
THE EDITORS' APPROACH
In the over 770 articles included herein, the editors have ventured to survey the entire field of homosexuality sine ira et studio, without anger and partisanship. In selecting contributors to the encyclopedia, they have sought competence and availability rather than adherence to any particular doctrine. They have endeavored to alert the reader to such controversies as divide even well-informed scholars. With the growth of knowledge some topics boast four or five experts, often with conflicting theoretical perspectives and sometimes with different conclusions. In some areas where topics overlap, such as FREUDIAN CONCEPTS and PSYCHOANALYSIS, the contributors - in this case, two of the editors - present clearly varying positions. In most instances only one of the several experts could be chosen for representation here. In addition to this factor, space limitations and other commitments have made it impossible to include every deserving scholar - indeed their ranks swell almost daily. Nonetheless, some fields, notably non-Western disciplines, remain neglected and coverage is consequently less rich than we would wish. No conclusion should be drawn regarding the sexual orientation of any author from his or her appearance in this work.
The encyclopedia is extraordinarily interdisciplinary in nature, transhistorical, and insofar as could be done at this time, cross-cultural. Discarding limited visions which might confine attention to the recent past and to the Western world, the present work traces countless connections across space and time. The Greeks who institutionalized pederasty and used it for educational ends take a prominent role, as does the Judeo-Christian tradition of sexual restriction and homophobia that prevailed under the church Fathers, Scholasticism, and the Reformers, and - in altered form - during the twentieth century under Hitler and Mussolini, Stalin and Castro. Avoiding the Eurocentrism of many earlier attempts at synthesis, the encyclopedia provides full treatment - as far as present knowledge allows - of Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Pacific, and of pre-literate as well as literate peoples. It is rare to encounter among these non-Western peoples anything approaching the intense homophobia found in the West.
One reason why this work is so multidiseiplinary is that the phenomena of homosexuality represent an outstanding theoretical problem for all those conceptual frameworks which seek to promote a comprehensive and cohesive accounting for human behavior. Whether evolutionary biologist, Marxist, theologian, anthropologist, psychoanalyst, ancient historian, literary critic, demographer, legal scholar, folklorist, feminist, or futurologist, one must either attempt to account for these phenomena and their influence on human life, or admit to an embarrassing gap in one's theory. Here homosexuality enters a sort of "theory prism," to take a term from Stephen Donaldson: the general phenomenon is passed through the refracting lens of grand theory like a beam of light, and either it emerges in coherent fashion, if in a spectrum of variegated facets, after such passage, or the prism is revealed to be opaque and in need of recasting. The way in which grand theories are serving as this theory prism, with mixed and often unexpected results, is one of the intriguing results of the emergence of homosexuality into the light of academic scrutiny.
HOW THE WORK IS CONSTRUCTED
While the articles in this encyclopedia have not been forced into a rigid straitjacket of typology, the vast majority of them are either thematic, topical, or biographical. Thematic entries may be at a very general level (such as SOCIOLOGY) or more differentiated (such as LABELING; ROLE; SUBCULTURE); they often cross-reference and present different intellectual perspectives. Topical entries deal with particular times and places, such as ROME, ANCIENT; SPAIN; and CHICAGO, or phenomena like BARS and ORAL SEX, where themes mix and cross; they tend to be more descriptive and less theoretical. Representative biographies emphasize the interface between the homosexual activity or orientation and the creative achievement of the subject. In this way the life history treats homosexuality not as something external and negative, but as an integral and meaningful part of the personality. A careful perusal of these biographies will demonstrate to the unbiased reader the rich personalities and the importance of homoerotic tendencies and liaisons in the lives of many who inspired, formed, directed, and interpreted civilization.
The number of biographical entries could be multiplied several times. A complete roster of even historically notable gay men and lesbians is probably unattainable. The editors' concern, however, is to present figures from all walks of life. For reasons of space, the editors decided not to include biographies of living people. They are often discussed in thematic or topical articles, e.g., Leonard Bernstein in MUSICIANS, Adrienne Rich in POETRY, Harry Hay in MOVEMENT, HOMOSEXUAL, and Michel Tremblay in QUEBEC. Usually when disagreement persists about the homosexuality or bisexuality of such figures as Catalina Erauso, Langston Hughes, and Sarah Orne Jewett, the Encyclopedia provides no separate biographical entry, though these individuals may be discussed in other contexts.
References to other articles in this encyclopedia are indicated by bold type in the text, or are listed at the end of the article under "See also - " For syntactical reasons, the grammatical form of the bolded word may differ slightly from that of the article, so that psychiatric refers to PSYCHIATRY and Japanese to JAPAN. Sometimes only the first word of the full title appears in bold type; thus prisons refers to PRISONS, JAILS, AND REFORMATORIES. The absence of such a cross-reference does not mean there is no article on the subject, just that it is not supplementary to the present piece. It has also been felt unnecessary and distracting to highlight some of the most general entries, such as HOMOSEXUALITY itself. The Index has been constructed so as to provide a maximum of correlation.
At the end of most articles will be found a list of readings under the heading "BIBLIOGRAPHY." This is not intended to be a complete list of sources, but a general guide for the reader wishing to delve further into the subject at hand, and not knowing where to start. With a few exceptions, original works by the subjects of biographies are not listed, only works about them; complete books have been favored over scattered articles. The reader seeking a more comprehensive bibliography is advised to consult Wayne R. Dynes' Homosexuality: A Research Guide, also from Garland Publishing. In most cases unsigned articles were written by the editor.
Firmly convinced that homoerotic feeling and behavior - and the homophile movement and gay and lesbian literature of modern times - are here to stay, the editors offer this encyclopedia to the public in the hope that it will find readers broad-minded enough to accept its unconventional choice of subject, impartial enough to assess its strengths as well as its weaknesses, and informed enough to correct its omissions and errors. They hope for a second, expanded edition sometime in the future drawing on the assessments of readers and reviewers and also on the ever broader and deeper stream of new scholarship. Their prof oundest wish is that future generations of scholars will revise, correct, and enlarge the volumes from decade to decade, so that it may serve as a trusted reference for all who seek enlightenment on the topic of homosexuality.
The editor gratefully acknowledges a grant from the American Association for Personal Privacy, Princeton, New Jersey. The advice of the Association's president, Dr. Arthur C. Warner, was continuously helpful. Dr. Paul Hardman (San Francisco), a director of the Association, has also been generously supportive. The editor wishes to recognize the inspiring example and advice over the years of Barbara Gittings, longtime Director of the Gay Task Force of the American Library Association, and of W. Dorr Legg, Dean of the ONE Institute in Los Angeles.
The interdisciplinary, transcultural, and transhistorical scope of this enterprise rests on a tradition of pioneering scholarship initiated in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by Heinrich Hoessli, Magnus Hirschfeld, and Ferdinand Karsch-Haack. Many concepts utilized in the Encyclopedia of Homosexuality were developed at meetings of the Scholarship Committee of the Gay Academic Union, New York, during the dec* ade 1976-85. The Scholarship Committee also began a program of exchange with foreign scholars which has been invaluable in broadening our international coverage. Among those especially helpful in this regard have been Xabier Aroz (Euskadi/ Spain), Massimo Consoli (Italy), Giovanni Dall'Orto (Italy), Jürgen Geisler (Germany), Julio Gomes (Portugal), John Grube (Canada), Gert Hekma (Netherlands), Manfred Herzer (Germany), Paul Knobel (Australia), Joâo Antonio de Sa Mascarenhàs (Brazil), Alan V. Miller (Canada), LuizMott (Brazil), and G. S. Simes (Australia). In the early stages of planning Claude Courouve of Paris gave important advice and encouragement. The editor acknowledges with gratitude the training he received as an encyclopedist at the Istituto per la Collaborazione Culturale in Rome, especially the help of Theresa C. Brakeley and Mamie Harmon.
To all the contributors, whose names appear in a separate list, we owe a special debt for sharing their expertise; The following authors have been so generous, individually and collectively, that they deserve the status of contributing editors: Giovanni Dall'Orto, Daniel Eisenberg, Stephen O. Murray, and Kathy D. Schnapper. The Index and Reader's Guide were created by Stephen Donaldson, who has been an indefatigable researcher and whose eagle-eyed editing has benefited the language and often the content of most of thé major entries.
A long-standing debt is owed to Jim Kepner, International Lesbian and Gay Archives, West Hollywood, and to Don Slater, Homosexual Information Center, Los Angeles and Bossier City, Louisiana.
From his vantage point as Editor of the Journal of Homosexuality, Professor John De Cecco provided a heartening example. Professor Eugene Rice of Columbia University offered sage advice. In Boston, Richard Dey of the International Homophilics Institute and Pedro J. Suârez rendered editorial help and research assistance. John Lauritsen generously offered technical advice, while Professor David F. Creenberg of New York University was an unfailing source of references. At Garland Publishing our editors Gary Kuris and Kennie Lyman have worked tirelessly and efficiently to ensure that no necessary step in the complex process of editing and production was neglected.
Finally, no acknowledgment would be complete without a tribute to the thousands of unsung heroes in and out of academia and the homophile movement, whose courageous and often lonely efforts to battle the prevailing taboos against research into, and open discussion of, homosexuality have at last succeeded in making this work possible.
A Reader's Guide
Readers who wish to use the encyclopedia as an instrument or text for a systematic study of homosexuality may consult the asterisked (*) articles in the following lists as suitable points of entry. Two methods are recommended:
(1) For those interested primarily in one or a small number of areas or disciplines, begin in each grouping with any articles bearing three asterisks, then read any with two, then any with one, and finally the remainder. A good starting place before selecting a particular topic or discipline group is the grouping ORIENTATIONS AND MODES, which will familiarize the reader with basic concepts and terminology.
(2) For those wishing to undertake a more comprehensive approach, read all the entries with three asterisks from all the groupings, then turn to those with two asterisks from all the groupings, and so on. Sometimes a given article will have different numbers of asterisks when listed in different groupings; in such cases one should be guided by the higher number. This approach, however, should also start with ORIENTATIONS AND MODES. (For the convenience of those choosing this method, a suggested reading order for the three-asterisked entries is given at the end of this guide.) After the asterisked entries, the non-asterisked articles may be read by those wishing a truly "encyclopedic" education.
Biographies have not been asterisked, on the understanding that readers will gain a sense of the importance of particular individuals from the thematic and topical articles and will thus be able to follow up with their own choice of biographies.
For tips on using cross-references within the articles, see the Preface. The reader is also directed to the Index for follow-up on any topics of particular interest; often additional information or a different perspective may be found in articles other than those listed. The Index* is also useful for inquiries into any subjects not covered by articles of their own; the curious reader will find that a browsing perusal of the Index will suggest many interesting topics for examination.
Barry D. Adam, University of Windsor (Canada)
Rudi Bleys, Catholic University, Leuven (Belgium)
Alan Bray, London (England)
Vern Bullough, State University of New York, Buffalo
David Cameron, ONE Institute, Los Angeles
Daniel Christiaens, Antwerp (Belgium)
Peter Christiansen, State University of New York, Binghampton
Siong-huat Chua, Boston
Randy Conner, San Francisco
Louis Crompton, University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Giovanni Dall'Orto, Milan (Italy)
Richard Dey, International Homophilics Institute, Boston
Stephen Donaldson, New York City
Wayne R. Dynes, Hunter College (CUNY), New York City
Daniel Eisenberg, University of Florida, Tallahassee
Lillian Faderman, California State University, Fresno
Lucy J. Fair, New Orleans
Stephen Wayne Foster, Miami
Peter Gach, San Francisco
Bruce-Michael Gelbert, New York City
Joseph Geraci, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Evelyn Gettone, New York City
Antonio A. Giarraputo, Boston
Jülip Gomes, Lisbon (Portugal)
Joseph P. Goodwin, Ball State University, Muncie, IN
Edward F. Grier, University of Kansas, Lawrence
J. S. Hamilton, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA
Gert Hekma, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Gregory Herek, Graduate Center, City University of New York
Manfred Herzer, Berlin (German Federal Republic)
Bret Hinsch, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
Tom Horner, New Bern, NC
Robert Howes, University of Cambridge (England)
Ward Houser, New York City
Warren Johansson, Gay Academic Union, New York City
Jim Jones, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant
Simon Karlinsky, University of California, Berkeley
Marita Keilson-Lauritz, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Hubert Kennedy, San Francisco
George Klawitter, Viterbo College, LaCrosse, WI
Paul Knobel, Sydney (Australia)
Jan Laude, Bloomington, IN
John Lauritsen, New York City
John Alan Lee, University of Toronto (Canada)
Jim Levin, City College (CUNY), New York City
Steven L. Lewis, Fort Wayne, IN
Lingananda, New York City
Phoebe Lloyd, Philadelphia
Donald Mader, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Dolores Maggiore, East Northport, NY
Theo van der Meer, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Dietrich Molitor, University of Siegen (German Federal Republic)
Luiz Mott, University of Bahia Salvador (Brazil)
Stephen O. Murray, Instituto Obregón, San Francisco
Peter Nardi, Pitzer College, Claremont, CA
Joan Nestle, Lesbian Herstory Archive, New York City
Eugene O'Connor, Irvine, CA
Michael Patrick O'Connor, Ann Arbor, MI
William Olander, The New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York City
William A. Percy, University of Massachusetts, Boston
Michel Philip, University of Massachusetts, Boston
Brian Pronger, Toronto (Canada)
Geoff Puterbaugh, Cupertino, CA
Michel Rey, Paris (France)
Ritch Savin-Williams, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
Paul Schalow, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ
Maarten Schild, Utrecht (Netherlands)
Jan Schippers, Schorer Stichtung, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Kathy D. Schnapper, School of Visual Arts, New York City
Udo Schüklenk, Waltrop (German Federal Republic)
Laurence Senelick, Tufts University, Medford, MA
Charley Shively, University of Massachusetts, Boston
Rodney Simard, California State University, San Bernardino
Frederik Silverstolpe, Lund (Sweden)
G. S. Simes, University of Sydney (Australia)
Pedro J. Suärez, Boston
Clark L. Taylor, San Francisco
John Taylor, Angers (France)
David Thomas, University of California, Santa Cruz
C. A. Tripp, Psychological Associates, Nyack, NY
Randolph Trumbach, Baruch College (CUNY), New York City
Arthur C. Warner, American Association for Personal Privacy, Princeton
James D. Weinrich, University of California, San Diego
Frederick L. Whitam, Arizona State University, Tempe
Walter L. Williams, University of Southern California, Los Angeles
Leslie Wright, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY