||In Central-Western Spain, forests and woodlands composed of Quercus sp. support outstanding levels of biodiversity, but there is increasing concern about their long-term persistence due to a lack of regeneration. We hypothesize that this regenerative lack is operating on a large geographic scale; that there are differences in the abundance of regeneration between three oak species; that oak regeneration is governed mainly by forest management and structure; and that shrubs act as important physical protectors of seedlings and saplings. We analyzed whether densities of oak seedlings and saplings in several size classes were related to stand-structure, understory, and physiographic variables potentially affecting regeneration. Data collected at a regional level (1 km × 1 km grid) by the Spanish Forest Inventory were evaluated from 2,816 plots. Results revealed that regeneration failure was common for all size categories, from small seedlings to large saplings, and for the three oak species studied, especially the evergreens. Of the Quercus ilex, Q. suber, and Q. pyrenaica plots studied, 49%, 62%, and 20% were lacking any small seedlings, and 82%, 96%, and 56% did not have any large saplings, respectively. Regeneration was positively correlated with tree cover and density, especially of small and medium-sized trees, and negatively correlated with the presence of large trees, indicating that regeneration failure is mostly associated with more open, uniform, and/or aged woodlands. Regeneration densities of Q. ilex and Q. suber were positively correlated with all understory variables, suggesting that the presence of pioneer shrubs represent a major safe site for early tree recruitment, independent from specific shrub species.