Volume 8, Issue 2 (2017)

Immigration, New Media, and Sense of Belonging of Thais in Berlin
Sirima Thongsawang
Economic migration tends to be the key element for the push and pull factors of immigrants who expect to improve their living conditions. However, the study found that the "family purpose" is the salient rationale for Thai immigrants in Berlin. As globalization and hi-technology closely engage with individuals' routine, the paper examines the intersections of immigration, new media, lives and identities of Thais in Berlin. The paper argues that the level of participants' integration and sense of belonging vary depending on their family socialization and personal experiences in Germany, whereas the 1.5 and 2nd generation Thais in Berlin are clearly shown that they are confident living in Germany. In cases of Thais in Berlin it is found that new media plays a prevalent role in shaping sense of belonging. The paper also argues that Thai immigrants are largely influenced by media and thus individuals interpret their belonging to the country of settlement linking with current immigration issues of German society. The paper contributes to the clear understanding of immigration based mainly on the family purpose and how Thai immigrants' lives have been adapted in the advanced technological era.

Learning Strategies and Audio-Visual Aids used in Adult Education in India: A Historical Overview
Fouzia Khursheed Ahmad, Prof. M. C. Paul
Education is the first step towards empowerment, and the most crucial factor in the overall development of an individual as well as the nation. In India, education in general, and adult education in particular, has been through a series of changes since its origin as a welfare activity, to its emergence as a tool for social and political awakening in the country. Various strategies have been used since the ancient period in India to preserve, impart and retain knowledge, which necessitates a re-look at the different stages that adult education has witnessed in the development of instructional materials, mediums and techniques, structure, systematization of knowledge and the mode of delivery, that has guided the learning process. The present paper attempts to explore the learning strategies and the audio-visual aids used in adult education by revisiting the series of measures taken in adult education in the country.

Living today or saving for tomorrow? Perspectives of the Future among "middle-class" milieus in Nairobi
Florian Stoll
This article examines how looking at perspectives of the Future contributes to distinguishing milieus in the "middle-classes" of urban Kenya. The rise of millions of Africans out of poverty since 2000 has triggered a debate on the so-called "African middle-classes". This debate, however, has to date not yet addressed the specifics and differences of particular subdivisions of this middle-income-group that would help to understand what is significant beyond their similar financial situation. In response to this gap, this text examines how particular views on Future contribute to distinguishing social milieus, i.e. sociocultural groups with different conducts of life. By examining empirical data for the Neo-Traditional milieu and the Social Climbers - milieus established through empirical data from fieldwork in Kenya for the Project "Middle-Classes on the Rise" - I examine how sociocultural aspects that are crucial for members of a specific milieu also affect their perspectives on the Future. I will show that these perspectives arise from a distinguishable approach to values, patterns of consumption, and in Kenya - as well as in many other African contexts - features like ethnicity, urban-rural ties, forms of religious affiliation or the relationship to the extended family.

The Status of Child Labour Exploitation in South West Ethiopia, Jimma Town: The Case of Bocho Bore Kebele
Sisay Alemayehu Gashaw
Nowadays, child labour exploitation has become a global problem. Hence, this study intends to examine the status of child labour exploitation in Jimma town, Bocho Bore Kebele. I used a purposive sampling technique to select informants and conducted non-participant observation, in depth and key informant interviews, document analysis and focus group discussion to generate data. The findings from this study revealed that children in Bocho Bore Kebele are vulnerable to wide and extreme violations of their rights. They are verbally, physically and sexually abused. The majority of child labourers are "invisible", hidden from sight and beyond the reach of the law. Many of these children are not only being exploited, they are often being denied education, basic health care, adequate nutrition, leisure time and the safety and security of their families and communities. Data generated from different methods showed that the most decisive factors for child labour exploitation are economic and social problems that adversely affect the living condition of child. Finally, child labour exploitation observed in Bocho Bore Kebele needs greater attention from different governmental and non-governmental organizations cooperation to solve the problem at a grass root level.